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12 Examples of Organelles

September 21, 2023
written by Sidra Batool

Organelles are specialized structures within eukaryotic cells. Nucleus, Mitochondria, chloroplast, Golgi apparatus, and vacuoles are a few examples of organelles.

Examples of Organelles

Here are some common examples of organelles found in a eukaryotic cell and prokaryotic cell:

1. Nucleus  

The nucleus is often referred to as the control center of the cell. It contains genetic material (DNA) and is responsible for regulating gene expression and directing cell activities.

2. Mitochondria  

Mitochondria are often called the “powerhouses” of the cell because they generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through cellular respiration.

3. Chloroplasts  

Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and some algae. They are responsible for photosynthesis, where they convert sunlight into chemical energy in the form of glucose.

4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)  

The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes that comes in two forms: rough ER (with ribosomes) and smooth ER (without ribosomes). It plays a role in protein synthesis, lipid metabolism, and detoxification.

5. Golgi Apparatus  

The Golgi apparatus processes modifies, and packages proteins and lipids into vesicles for transport within or outside the cell.

6. Lysosomes  

Lysosomes contain enzymes that break down cellular waste, damaged organelles, and foreign materials, serving as the cell’s “garbage disposal” system.

7. Peroxisomes  

Peroxisomes are involved in lipid metabolism and detoxification, breaking down fatty acids and harmful compounds like hydrogen peroxide.

8. Vacuoles  

Vacuoles are membrane-bound sacs that store water, ions, nutrients, and waste products in plant cells. They can also provide structural support.

9. Ribosomes

Ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis. They can be found free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.

10. Cytoskeleton  

The cytoskeleton is not a single organelle but a network of protein filaments and tubules that provide structural support, enable cell movement, and facilitate intracellular transport. It includes microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.

11. Cell Membrane  

The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a lipid bilayer that surrounds the cell and regulates the passage of molecules in and out of the cell.

12. Nucleolus  

The nucleolus is found within the nucleus and is involved in the production of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the assembly of ribosomes.

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