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# Roman Numerals

September 27, 2023
written by Rida Mirza

In mathematics, Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

## Basics

Roman numbers a numeric system that originated in ancient Rome. Unlike the Arabic numeral system (1, 2, 3, etc.), Roman numerals use letters of the alphabet to represent numbers. Here’s a quick reference to the most commonly used Roman numerals:

I – 1

V – 5

X – 10

L – 50

C – 100

D – 500

M – 1000

## Examples of Roman Numerals to Arabic Numerals

III is 3 (I + I + I)

VII is 7 (V + I + I)

XV is 15 (X + V)

XCII is 92 (XC + II)

MMXXI is 2021 (M + M + X + X + I)

## Table of 50 Roman Numerals

### Roman Numerals in Mathematics

Roman numerals can be used for basic arithmetic operations. However, they are not as practical as Arabic numerals for complex calculations. Here’s an example of addition:

• XVII + IX = XXVI

### Subtractive Principle

Roman numerals also employ the subtractive principle, which allows for more efficient representation. For instance:

IV represents 4 (one less than 5).

XC represents 90 (ten less than 100).

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