# Roman Numerals

In **mathematics**, Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

In this article, we will discuss the Roman numerals.

**Basics**

Roman numbers a numeric system that originated in ancient Rome. Unlike the Arabic numeral system (1, 2, 3, etc.), Roman numerals use letters of the alphabet to represent numbers. Here’s a quick reference to the most commonly used Roman numerals:

I – 1

V – 5

X – 10

L – 50

C – 100

D – 500

M – 1000

**Examples of Roman Numerals to Arabic Numerals**

III is 3 (I + I + I)

VII is 7 (V + I + I)

XV is 15 (X + V)

XCII is 92 (XC + II)

MMXXI is 2021 (M + M + X + X + I)

**Table of 50 Roman Numerals**

Roman Numeral | Arabic Numeral |
---|---|

I | 1 |

II | 2 |

III | 3 |

IV | 4 |

V | 5 |

VI | 6 |

VII | 7 |

VIII | 8 |

IX | 9 |

X | 10 |

XI | 11 |

XII | 12 |

XIII | 13 |

XIV | 14 |

XV | 15 |

XVI | 16 |

XVII | 17 |

XVIII | 18 |

XIX | 19 |

XX | 20 |

XXI | 21 |

XXII | 22 |

XXIII | 23 |

XXIV | 24 |

XXV | 25 |

XXVI | 26 |

XXVII | 27 |

XXVIII | 28 |

XXIX | 29 |

XXX | 30 |

XXXI | 31 |

XXXII | 32 |

XXXIII | 33 |

XXXIV | 34 |

XXXV | 35 |

XXXVI | 36 |

XXXVII | 37 |

XXXVIII | 38 |

XXXIX | 39 |

XL | 40 |

XLI | 41 |

XLII | 42 |

XLIII | 43 |

XLIV | 44 |

XLV | 45 |

XLVI | 46 |

XLVII | 47 |

XLVIII | 48 |

XLIX | 49 |

L | 50 |

**Advanced Concepts**

**Roman Numerals in Mathematics**

Roman numerals can be used for basic arithmetic operations. However, they are not as practical as Arabic numerals for complex calculations. Here’s an example of addition:

- XVII + IX = XXVI

**Subtractive Principle**

Roman numerals also employ the subtractive principle, which allows for more efficient representation. For instance:

IV represents 4 (one less than 5).

XC represents 90 (ten less than 100).

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