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What is AC Motor?-Definition, Working, Types, And Application

August 29, 2022
written by Adeel Abbas

An AC motor is an electric motor that is powered by an alternating current. The AC motor typically consists of two basic parts, an outside stator and an inside rotor that is connected to the output shaft and produces a rotating magnetic field.

Permanent magnets, reluctance saliency, or DC or AC electrical windings can be used to produce the rotor magnetic field.

 What is AC Motor?

A motor that converts alternating current into mechanical power is known as an AC motor. The parts of an AC motor that are important are the stator and the rotors. There are two parts to the motor, the stationary part of the motor and the rotating part of the motor. The AC motor can be either single-phase or three-phase. The first AC motor was invented in the 19th century by NikolaTesla.

Working Principle of AC Motor

The two main types of AC motors are induction and synchronous. The asynchronous motor relies on a small difference in speed between the magnetic field of the stator and the slip of the rotors to induce a current in the AC winding.

In situations where slip is irrelevant or the motor ceases to exist, the induction motor cannot produce torque near Synchronous Speed. The synchronous motor does not rely on slip-induction for operation and uses either permanent magnets, projecting magnetic poles, or an independently excited rotor winding. The speed at which the motor produces its rated Torque is exactly the same as the speed at which the motor produces its Torque.

The doubly fed synchronous motor system has an independently excited rotor winding that does not rely on the principles of slip induction of current. The doubly fed motor can function at both the supply and the sub to a super multiple of the supply frequencies.

Types of AC Motor

There are two main types of AC motors.

  • Induction Motor
  • Synchronous Motor

Induction motor

Induction motors are the most commonly used motors.  It’s known as asynchronous motors because they run slower than synchronous speed. There are two types of induction motors.

  • Squirrel Cage Motor
  • Slip Ring Motor

Synchronous Motor

The motor that runs at a fast pace is known as the motor that runs at a slower pace. Synchronous speed is the constant speed at which the motor creates the electrical force. An electromagnet in the rotating magnetic field locks itself with the rotating magnetic field and rotates simultaneously with the rotating field.

There is a place where the name synchronous motor comes from. This also means that there are fixed speeds for the synchronous motors. There is a formula that can be used to calculate the synchronous speed.

 ns =120f/p

Application of AC Motor

Due to their flexibility, efficiency, and quiet operation, AC motors are viable power sources for a wide range of applications. There are a variety of uses for AC motors, including pumps, water heaters, lawn and garden equipment, ovens, and off-road motorized equipment.