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Proper Noun-Rules, Types, Usage, and Examples

February 13, 2024

What is Proper Noun?

A proper noun is a type of noun that is used as the name of a particular person, place, thing, or organization. It always starts with a capital letter.

What is Proper Noun image


  1. Jack is famous painter.
  2. Mumbai is a big city.
  3. Kids like Oreo biscuits.
  4. He likes to write with a dollar pen.
Proper Noun examples image

Rules for Proper Noun Usage

Here are the key rules for using proper nouns:

1: Capitalization

Always capitalize the first letter of a proper noun, regardless of where it appears in a sentence. This includes:

Capitalization of Proper Noun image
  • People’s names: John, Mary, Dr. Patel, Beyoncé
  • Places: Paris, Mount Everest, the Sahara Desert
  • Things: Mona Lisa, iPhone, the United Nations
  • Titles of works: Harry Potter, Star Wars, Mona Lisa
  • Brands: Nike, Coca-Cola, McDonald’s
  • Languages: English, Spanish, French
  • Days, months, and holidays: Monday, March, Christmas

2: Exceptions

Articles (the, a, an) and prepositions appearing before proper nouns are usually lowercase: the Nile River, in America, on Friday

  • Some titles before names may be lowercase: President Washington, King Arthur
  • Points of the compass are lowercase unless part of a proper name: north, South America

3: Usage

Use proper nouns to refer to specific, unique things. Don’t use them as general terms.

  • Example: “She loves Shakespeare.” (Correct) vs. “She’s such a Shakespeare.” (Incorrect)
  • Generally omit articles before proper nouns, unless they are part of the official name:
    • I visited the Louvre Museum.” (Correct) vs. “The Louvre is amazing.” (Incorrect)

Types of Proper nouns based on Entities

Proper noun is used to name a specific person, place, days, months, languages, nationalities, events of historical importance, significant eras and periods, and specific brands.

image showing Types of Proper nouns based on Entities

 1: Person As Proper Noun

The names of person are used as a proper noun because they are considered specific.


  1. Quid-e-Azam is the founder of Pakistan.
  2. Hamza and ali are good friends.
  3. Obama was the former president of America.

2: Place As Proper Noun

The names of specific countries, cities, rivers, and continents are used as proper nouns.


  1. America is often referred to as a land of opportunity
  2. The Nile River flows from multiple countries.
  3. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.
  4. Asia is the largest continent in the world.

3: Days As Proper Noun

Names of days of the week are also considered proper nouns because they refer to a particular day.


  1. Sunday, football games are thrilling
  2. I had lunch with her last Monday
  3. Saturday is my busiest day.

4: Months and seasons As Proper Noun

Months and seasons in the year are also considered proper noun.


  1. July is the perfect time for a beach vacation.
  2. March is the start of spring.
  3. In Spring, flowers bloom beautifully.
  4. I enjoy skiing in the winter.

5:  Languages and Nationality As Proper Noun

The languages and nationalities of a particular country are also considered proper nouns.


  1. English is a global language.
  2. I am Pakistani and speak Urdu.
  3. Joe is and American and speaks English Language.

6: Significant Eras As Proper Noun

Different significant eras of history are also specific and considered proper nouns.


  1. Shakespeare flourished in the Elizabethan era.
  2. Stone Age marked by stone tools.
  3. The Middle ages saw the rise of feudalism.

7:  Specific Brands As Proper Noun

The names of brands, different companies and organizations are specific.


  • She prefers to use I-phone Apple mobiles
  • I ordered a new book from Amazon
  • I need to buy new shoes from Niki
  • He likes BMW car.

Usage in Sentences

Here are some sentences that demonstrate proper usage of proper nouns:

  1. My brother Jason and I visited our aunt Mary in Paris last summer.
  2. President Biden will be giving a speech at the White House on Monday.
  3. I really want to see the new Star Wars movie that just came out.
  4. In English class, we are reading Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare.
  5. My favorite holiday is Christmas because I love decorating the tree and spending time with family.
  6. Companies like McDonald’s and Coca-Cola spend millions on advertising each year.
  7. Yosemite National Park in California is known for its beautiful waterfalls and giant sequoia trees.
  8. I have piano lessons every Tuesday after school.
  9. For our anniversary, my wife and I went on vacation to Hawaii.
  10. Many people learn languages like Spanish, French, and Mandarin Chinese.
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