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Silicone-Discovery, Properties, And Applications

October 20, 2023
written by Adeel Abbas

Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a metalloid, meaning it has properties of both metals and non-metals. Silicon is the second most abundant element in the Earth’s crust after oxygen and is found in various forms such as silicon dioxide (silica) and silicates.

image of silicon element
Atomic number14
Relative atomic mass (Ar)Group in the periodic table
Standard stateSolid at 298 K
AppearanceDark grey with a bluish tinge
Period in the periodic table14
Group name(none)
Block in the periodic table3
Block in periodic tablep
Shell structure2.8.4
CAS Registry7440-21-3


Silicon was first isolated and described in 1824 by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius. It wasn’t until the 1940s that the production of pure silicon became feasible, leading to its widespread use in various industries.

Physical Properties: Silicon is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic luster. It has a high melting point of 1414 °C and a boiling point of 3265 °C. Silicon is a semiconductor, which means it has electrical conductivity somewhere between that of a metal and an insulator.

Chemical Properties

Silicon is a tetravalent element, meaning it can form four covalent bonds with other elements. It is not very reactive under normal conditions but can react with some strong acids and bases. Silicon can form various compounds such as silicon dioxide, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride.


  • Silicon is the key element in the production of integrated circuits, which power most electronic devices.
  • Silicon is used in the manufacture of glass, ceramics, and solar cells.
  • Silicon is the eighth most abundant element in the universe.
  • Silicon is essential for the growth of many plants, including rice and sugarcane.


  • Integrated circuits and microchips
  • Solar cells
  • Glass and ceramics
  • Sealants and adhesives
  • Water repellents
  • Silicone rubber
  • Lubricants
  • In the form of silica, it is used as a food additive and anti-caking agent.