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What is Computer Motherboard?-Types and History of Motherboard

August 18, 2022

Computer Motherboards are the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. A motherboard consists of a circuit board containing chipsets, memory modules, processors, connectors, and other components. Motherboards connect all the devices in a computer system together.

The motherboard is the main component of a computer’s internal hardware system. It contains the processor, memory chips, power supply, and other components of the computer.

image showing the computer motherboard

Components of Motherboard

A motherboard has many components. Each component has different work.


A chipset is a set of integrated circuits designed to provide specific functionality. Most motherboards have at least two chipsets, one for video output and one for sound. Chipsets are often built into the motherboard.


The Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) is a collection of software instructions that tells the hardware what to do. It resides in Read-Only Memory (ROM), and cannot be changed once it is installed on the motherboard.


A processor is the brain of the computer. It controls everything else in the machine. Processors are either single-core or multi-core. Single-core processors run only one program at a time. Multi-core processors allow several programs to run simultaneously.

Graphics Card

Graphics cards are special chips designed specifically for video games. They are commonly used in PCs, laptops, and consoles.

Hard Drive

Hard drives store information on magnetic disks. Information is written to them using small magnets. When reading the information, they use electromagnetic coils to detect these magnets.

Memory Module

Memory modules are small circuit boards that hold a certain amount of RAM. Each module contains several DRAM chips.


Connectors are metal pins that allow electrical signals to pass between different parts of a device. There are many types of connectors, including USB, VGA, DVI, HDMI, RJ45, etc.

Power Supply Unit

Power supplies convert alternating current electricity into direct current electricity. They regulate voltage, filter noise, and convert AC power to DC power.

CPU socket

The CPU is the heart of any computer. A CPU socket is a metal plate that holds the CPU in place. It has pins that fit into holes in the motherboard. This allows the CPU to connect to the rest of the system.

Graphics Processing Unit

GPUs are specialized processors that perform graphics-related tasks. GPUs are commonly used in game consoles, personal computers, and workstations.


Random Access Memory (RAM) is a type of computer memory that stores data temporarily while the processor is using it. When the processor needs information stored in RAM, it sends out a signal requesting the information. The RAM then provides the requested information to the processor.

Types of motherboard

There are different types of motherboard

ATX motherboard

The ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) standard was developed by Intel and Microsoft in 1994. It was designed to provide compatibility between different components and allow for easier upgrades. The first version of the ATX standard was released in 1995.

Since then, many manufacturers have adopted the standard and now use it in their products.

MicroATX motherboards

MicroATX is a smaller variant of the ATX standard. It was created to reduce the size of computer cases and make them more portable. Because they were designed to fit in small spaces, microATX motherboards are often less powerful than regular ATX boards.

ITX motherboards 

ITX stands for integrated technology extension. It is a newer standard that combines the features of both ATX and microATX standards. ITX motherboards are smaller and lighter than regular ATX boards but still offer enough power to run modern computers.

AT motherboard

Old models of motherboards include the XT, or extended Technology, motherboards. These consist of processors that fit into slots, as well as DIMM RAM slots, Low Insertion Force (LIF) sockets, and ISA slots with 12-pin power connectors.

1981 IBM personal computer
1984 IBM Personal Computer AT
1985Baby AT motherboard 
1987  LPX motherboard 
1997  LPX motherboard 
1998WTX motherboard
1999  Flex ATX motherboard 
2000  ETX motherboard specification
2001  Mini-ITX form factor 
2003 PCI Express standard 
2004  The mobile-ITX form factor for motherboards 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is a motherboard?

The motherboard is the central part of the computer. It is the single platform through which all the devices such as the chipset, memory, CPU, hard drives, optical drives, video card, sound card, and other ports and expansion cards are directly connected.

What are the main components of the motherboard?

·        CPU Socket
·        Chipset
·        Connector
·        USB Port

What are the 3 types of motherboards?

·        ATX
·        Mini – ATX
·        Micro – ATX