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A Brief Overview of the Basic Components of a Computer

July 24, 2022

We all are aware of the fact that computers are an important part of our life. There are so many new features, updates, and changes that are taking place in the field of technology. With time, the use of computers and the internet has grown very high.

There are so many benefits of using a computer like keeping track of your bills, shopping online, and checking out the internet for more information. If you are looking for the best computer accessories, then you are in the right place.

Here is a list of the most popular accessories (printer, mice, scanner, keyboard, monitor, etc.)that you can buy to upgrade your computer to a better level:

Basic Components of a Computer

There are basic components of a computer


The keyboard is an input device. It is a commonly used input device because most data is entered into the computer via the keyboard. There are many buttons known as keys. A standard keyboard has 101 keys.

A keyboard contains alphabet keys, numeric keys, functional keys, and special keys. Different functional keys perform different functions.


It is an important pointing device for your computer. To click on a picture or to scroll through a webpage, you need a mouse.

A mouse has two buttons that perform different functions. It also includes a scroll wheel which is used for scrolling. A mouse is a small electronic device that looks like a ball. It has a tiny arm attached to it, which moves across the screen.

A mouse also contains a small ball at the bottom which is used for the movement of the cursor. When you move the mouse, you move the cursor. You can click on the pictures, play games online, and use programs like Microsoft Word and Photoshop.

Many people spend thousands of dollars on their mice. You can buy mice that are designed for computer use. You can also use a wireless mouse, which does not have a cord.

image showing the Mouse


A monitor is the second important component of your computer. It is the most important output device which provides a softcopy of data. There are different types of monitors which are distinguished on the basis of size, resolution, and color.

The best laptops have a 1366 x 768 screen resolution. You can buy a screen separately or you can buy a complete laptop.

You have to make sure that it has a high-quality screen and the right resolution. Also, it should be easy to read and see on a clear day. When you are buying a computer, make sure that it has a built-in camera. You should have a good-quality camera so you can use it to record a video.

image showing the Monitor

CPU(Central Processing Unit)

Central Processing Unit, is also known as the brain of a computer. The CPU is responsible for the speed and efficiency of the computer. It consists of different parts and functions, which are all controlled by the motherboard and the operating system.

The main components of the CPU are:


This is the part of the processor that actually does the computations. The processor is composed of multiple cores, each of which can be running one or more threads simultaneously. A thread is the smallest unit of execution in the program.

Memory Controller:

The Memory Controller controls the access to the memory system of the computer.

It is responsible for controlling the read and write operations on the memory.


The Bus is a communication network between the processor and the peripheral devices such as the keyboard, mouse, hard drive, etc.

image showing the CPU


Memory is used to store data and information. It works like the human brain

Types of computer memory

A memory mainly has two types RAM and ROM

 RAM(Random Access Memory)

Random Access Memory is also known as the working memory of the computer. It stores temporary data, such as programs, web pages, and graphics.

It can be used to perform simple arithmetic operations and logical functions. The most important thing about RAM is that it is volatile, which means that when the computer turns off or loses power, all the data in RAM is lost.

The only way to preserve this data is to save it to a hard drive. RAM is used for temporary storage.

image showing the RAM
ROM(Read Only Memory)

Read Only Memory is also known as external and non-volatile memory. It stores data permanently. If the system shut down during work data cannot be lost in this memory. ROM is slower than RAM. Hard disk, CD, and Memory cards are examples of ROM.

Hard Disk

The hard disk is the most important component of your computer. You need to buy a bigger hard disk if your computer is small. A bigger hard disk is used to store the data.

Hard disks are needed to store your data. Your hard disk is made up of various components. Some of these are the read/write head, the platter, the actuator, the motor, and the spindle motor. These components are all important to the operation of your computer.

If any of these parts are defective, your hard disk will be damaged. This would be a big problem for your computer. A damaged hard disk will also make your computer stop working. If your computer isn’t working right now, you can call the technicians to fix the problem.

You can find the address of the technicians in the phone book. If you want to store large amounts of information on your computer, you will need a bigger hard disk. For example, your computer’s hard disk is 5 gigabytes.

This means that your computer has 5 gigabytes of storage space. To store more data on your computer, you need a bigger hard disk. You need to buy a bigger hard disk if you are planning to store a lot of data.

image showing the Hard disk
Hard Disk


A webcam is also an important component of a computer. You can use your webcam to video chat or to record images.

A webcam is an electronic device that is used to connect with other people. You can use it to video chat or record images. You can take pictures with your webcam. You can use it to show your friends or to post them on social media websites.

Most computers today have a webcam built-in. Many people prefer to use a webcam rather than a microphone because it is more discreet.

image showing the Webcam

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What are the 7 major components of a computer?

There are seven major components of a computer, which are a CPU, motherboard, hard drive, RAM, power supply, monitor, and mouse. These components are interdependent, and they all work together to create the entire experience.

What are the five classic components of a computer?

In any computer, there are a few common components that make up the majority of the computer’s overall functionality. These include a CPU, RAM, HDD, display, and power supply. They each play an important role in how a computer runs and functions, and together, they form a complete computer.

What are the major components of a digital computer?

A digital computer consists of a central processing unit (CPU), memory chips, input/output (I/O) ports, and a display device. The CPU processes all the information received through the I/O ports and sends commands to the display device for displaying the data.

Memory chips store programs, data, and data structures. Display devices include CRT monitors, LCD screens, and printers.

What components are needed for a functional computer?

You need to have a motherboard, CPU, RAM, and storage devices, among other components. The storage drive may be a hard drive, or it may be a solid-state drive. The storage drive has to be compatible with the rest of the components, and it should be fast enough to store all the data you need.