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Computer hardware- External hardware and internal hardware

September 4, 2022

What is computer hardware?

Computer hardware refers to the physical components of a computer system. We can see and touch the hardware components of the computer.

Image showing What is computer hardware?

Computers consist of two parts hardware and software. Computers cannot work without any of them.

Hardware includes the motherboard, CPU, RAM, hard drive, power supply, monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, etc.

In addition to providing basic computing power, the hardware also helps manage data storage and communication between programs.

External Parts of computer

What is external hardware?

External hardware is any hardware components that are connected to a computer but are not housed within its main case. These are also known as peripheral devices.

image showing What is external hardware
Computer hardware refers to the physical components of a computer system. We can see and touch the hardware components of the computer.

There are two categories of external hardware components of computers based on their functionality.

1. Input hardware components

Input hardware devices are used to enter data into the computer. Users enter data through these devices.


The keyboard is the most important input hardware device. Most of the data is entered through the keyboard. There are many buttons on the keyboard for different purposes. Every button performs a different function.

image showing the input hardware device keyboard


The mouse is a pointing device that is used to point to something and select something on the screen. It is used to enter data hence it is an input external hardware component of a computer.

image showing mouse as input hardware device


A microphone is an audio input device. It is used to enter audio into the computer. The process of entering any sound into the computer is called audio input.


The camera is an input device. It stores images digitally in its memory rather than recording them on film. The picture taken with a digital camera can be transmitted to a computer system. Many digital cameras allow users to edit images.

image showing camera as input external hardware device

There are many other input hardware devices are memory cards, touchpads, etc.

2. Output hardware parts

Output hardware devices are essential components of a computer system that convey information or results processed by the computer to the user or other devices.

They translate digital data into a form that humans or other machines can understand, making the computer’s output tangible and accessible.


Monitors display images produced by video cards and are often used as television receivers. A CRT monitor uses a vacuum tube while LCDs use liquid crystals.


Speakers are the audio output device. It is used to listen to the audio. The computer has its internal speakers but the voice quality of these speakers is not too good. So the users need to attach external speakers for better voice quality.


The printer is an output device. It is used to print character symbols documents etc. The printed copy is called the hard copy. It provides a printed copy of the document.

Internal Hardware Components

What is internal hardware?

Internal hardware components are inside your computer, that work together to process information.

image showing What is external hardware

The computer has many internal hardware devices like a hard drive, Motherboard, and CPU.

Hard Drive

A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded information using rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces.

HDDs were once known as Winchester drives after the manufacturer Western Digital.

Solid State Drive (SSD)

Solid state drives are a type of storage device that uses solid-state memory to store persistent data. SSDs use flash memory chips instead of electromechanical devices such as hard disks and optical discs.

Flash memory is much faster than electromechanical devices, making them ideal for storing frequently accessed files.


The motherboard is the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. It is the heart of the computer and contains the CPU, memory chips, and various connectors.

The motherboard is often referred to as the brain of the computer.

image showing the internal device motherboard

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

It is the central part of the computer. It is also called the brain of the computer. It is also known as a processor. CPU has many parts like arithmetic and logic units, main memory, and I/O units.

Statistics about computer hardware industry

Here are some recent statistics related to the computer hardware industry that you can use for your article:

  1. Growth of the IT Hardware Market: The IT Hardware Market size is anticipated to grow from USD 121.32 billion in 2023 to USD 177.11 billion by 2028, at a CAGR of 7.86% during the forecast period (2023-2028). This market includes the global production, distribution, and sale of computer hardware components and devices.
  2. Global Computer Hardware Market Size: In 2023, the global computer hardware market size has grown to $705.17 billion, up from $658.32 billion in 2022. This represents a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.1%.
  3. Computer Hardware Industry Profitability: In the third quarter of 2023, the Computer Hardware Industry saw a growth in gross profits by 7.35%, while revenue increased by 6.58%. This led to an improvement in the industry’s gross margin to 44.36%, which is above the industry’s average gross margin. On a trailing twelve-month basis, the gross margin in Q3 2023 grew to 42.19%.

These statistics reflect significant growth and profitability in the computer hardware industry, indicating a robust and expanding market.




Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

What are computer hardware and its types?

Computer hardware is the physical part of the computer. We can touch and see the hardware components of the computer. There are different types of hardware like monitors, speakers, keyboards, printers, etc.

What are the three main types of computers?

·         Internal devices
·         Output devices
·         Input devices

What are input devices? Give examples

The input devices are used to enter data into the computer.
Examples: keyboard, microphones, mouse, camera, etc.

What are 5 output device’s names?

·         Monitor
·         Printer
·         Speaker
·         Plotters
·         Headphones

What is the speaker explain?

Speaker is an output device that is used to loud the voice. A speaker device is a small electronic gadget that helps amplify sound waves. A speaker device is similar to a microphone except that it amplifies sound instead of recording it.