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What is an Integrated Circuit?-Parts of ICs

September 14, 2022

An integrated circuit (IC) is a small electronic device that contains many transistors and resistors. they are used in the Third generation of computers. An IC performs a specific function and is often connected to other components to create a larger system. There are two types of ICs: analog and digital. Analog ICs use resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transistors to perform their function. Digital ICs use only transistors to perform their task.

image showing the integrated circuits

What is an integrated circuit?

The components that make up an integrated circuit include resistors, capacitors, diodes, and transistors. They are made from a single block or chip of a semiconductor, an Integrated Circuit (IC). All of them are working together to perform a task. Attaching the IC to a circuit board is easy because it is breakable, and it is usually housed in a plastic package with metal pins.

Parts of ICs

There are some parts of ICs.


A transistor is a three-terminal device consisting of two metal contacts called electrodes and a semiconductor material called the channel between them. When current flows through the channel, electrons gain kinetic energy causing them to pass through the channel.

Semiconductor Material

Semiconductors are materials whose electrical conductivity changes based on their chemical composition. In general, they have been classified into two types: p-type semiconductors and n-type semiconductors.

P-type semiconductors have positively charged holes that move freely through the material, while n-type semiconducting materials have negatively charged electrons that move easily through the material.

Metal Electrode

Metal electrodes are composed of either pure metals or compounds containing metals. A metal electrode may be connected to a terminal of an IC chip.


The die is the portion of the IC chip where the actual circuitry is located.


The package is the enclosure that holds the die together with its connections. The package provides protection from environmental factors and mechanical damage.


Chip refers to the individual die inside the package.

Integrated Circuit Design

The three categories of IC design are as follows:

  • Analog design
  • Digital Design
  • Mixed Design

Digital Design

Integrated circuits (ICs), which are used as computer memories, are created using the digital design approach. The circuit density and overall efficiency are both maximized with this approach to design. The ICs created with this technique are made with 0 and 1 input data.

Analog Design

The IC chip is created by using the analog design process.

  • ICs can be used as regulators, filters, and oscillators.
  • Gain and resistance are required in order to achieve optimal power dissipation.

Mixed Design

A mixed-signal integrated circuit can be a combination of analog circuits, digital circuits, intrinsic mixed-signal circuits like analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and embedded software in some cases. Digital ICs are generally classified as integrated circuits.

A computer (e.g. a processor) or an electronic device (e.g. a computer). An operational amplifier is a type of amplifier. A mixed-signal IC is a chip that has both digital and analog circuits on it. Increased use of cell phones, other portable electronics, and automobiles with electronics and digital sensors has led to a dramatic increase in their usage.

Generations of ICs

AbbreviationsFull formsYearsTransistor countLogic gates number
SSIsmall-scale integration19641 to 101 to 12
MSImedium-scale integration196810 to 50013 to 99
LSIlarge-scale integration1971500 to 20 000100 to 9999
VLSIvery large-scale integration198020 000 to 1 000 00010 000 to 99 999
ULSIultra-large-scale integration19841 000 000 and more100 000 and more

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is Integrated Circuit explain?

An integrated circuit, also known as a chip or microchip, is a small semiconductor-based electronic device consisting of fabricated transistors, resistors, and capacitors. Integrated circuits are the building blocks of most electronic devices and equipment.

What are integrated circuits used for?

Analog integrated circuits are used in electronic design and are categorized as either digital or a combination of the two. They can be used for amplifiers, video processors, computer memory, switches, and microprocessors.

How many types of IC are there?

There are two types of ICs:
Digital ICs
Analog ICs

What is IC made up of?

ICs are made up of silicon.