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Architecture of Computer System | Components of Computer Architecture

July 26, 2022

The way through which components of computers are interlinked and communicate with each other is called the architecture of the computer system.

A computer is a combination of different components. Different components perform different functions. All components work together and relay with one another.

Components of Computer Architecture.

There are different components of computer architecture.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

CPU is called the brain of the computer. It is the most important part of the computer because without this part processing of data is not possible. It is also known as the processor. All computers must have a central processing unit.

CPU is located on the motherboard. It carries out most of the work of a computer. CPU performs all operations on data according to the given instructions.

It executes the instructions and tells the parts of the computer what to do. Most of the data consists of calculation and data transfer.

It consists of two main parts Arithmetic Unit and Logic Unit and Control Unit/

ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit)

ALU is a part of the CPU. The actual execution of instructions takes place in this part. All arithmetic and logical operations are performed in ALU. It consists of two units

Arithmetic Unit

The arithmetic unit of ALU performs basic arithmetic functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Logic Unit

The logic Unit of ALU performs logical operations like comparing two data items to find which data item is greater than, equal to, or less than the other.

CU (Control Unit)

It is an important component of the CPU. It acts like a supervisor of the computer because it controls all activities of the computer. The control unit performs the following functions.

  • It fetches an instruction from the main memory.
  • It interprets the instructions to find what function to be performed.
  • It controls the execution of the instructions.
image showing the Architecture of Computer System

Main Memory

Main Memory is the computer memory which is an important component of a computer system. It is used to store programs and data that are being used. It is also known as a working area of a computer system.

A computer cannot work without main memory.

There are two types of main memory

RAM (Random Access Memory)

Random Access Memory is also called direct access memory. It is volatile memory.

ROM (Read Only Memory)

ROM is non Volatile memory.  The instruction in memory prepares the computer for use.

Input and Output unit

The I/O unit is an important component of a computer. A computer system has many input devices and output devices such as a keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, scanner, etc. These devices are different from one another in their organization.

The data transfer rates handled by these devices are also different. They also support different formats of data. It is impossible to connect all the devices directly to the system bus due to these differences.

image showing the  input and output unit of computer

It is difficult for the CPU to control all these devices directly as it can waste a lot of CPU time. Suppose a CPU waits for the completion of I/O operations. It cannot perform any other operation during this task. It affects the overall performance of the computer.

A special hardware component I/O unit is used to avoid difficulties. It works as an interface between CPU and I/O devices. It carries out all I/O tasks without involving the CPU directly. The I/O unit is connected to the bus. The processor and other devices are connected to the I/O unit.

Responsibilities of I/O unit

  • It monitors the state of different devices attached to it.
  • It manages the speed difference between the processor and I/O devices

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the basic architecture of a computer system?

The different components in the Computer System Architecture are the Input Unit, Output Unit, Storage Unit, Arithmetic Logic Unit, and Control Unit

What are the different units of CPU?

CPU consists of different units. These are CPU Memory (Registers), Arithmetic and Logic unit (ALU), and control unit (CU).

Which function is performed by the logic unit?

The logic unit of ALU performs the logical operations. A logical operation is usually a comparison of numbers, letters or special characters. A comparison operation is performed to make a decision.

What is the main memory?

Main Memory is an important component of the computer where data is stored. It has two types, RAM and ROM.

Difference between RAM and ROM?

RAM is a temporary memory. It is a volatile memory. The instruction written into the RAM at the time of execution.
ROM is a permanent memory. It is non-volatile memory. The instruction written into the RAM at the time of execution.